Estetica spatiului oriental in poezia romantica engleza (III)
Categorie articol: Lecturi
viziunea lui Byron din tragedia lirica sardanapalus ne prezinta delicate viniete orientale (dintre cele care vor face, ulterior, deliciul pictorilor orientalisti din anglia si din franta), in cadrul ales al unei excursii la bordul unei corabii ce pluteste pe undele eufratului, urmat de un banchet la curte. regele insusi isi invita sclava iubita, pe frumoasa myrrha, sa-l insoteasca, intr-un gest de adorare a frumusetii si de celebrare a existentei materiale: „come, myrrha, let us go on to the euphrates: / the hour invites, the galley is prepared, / and the pavilion, deck’d for our return, / in fit adornment for the evening banquet, / shall blaze with beauty and with light, until / it seems unto the stars which are above us / itself an opposite star; and we will sit / crown’d with fresh flowers […]”. astrele (conform traditiei inteleptilor din Ninive, prozopopei ale zeilor caldeei) devin obiectul unui pean inchinat, prin extensiune, naturii celeste in splendidul monolog romantic al lui sardanapalus. incertitudinea ontologica asigura insasi substanta vietii si a poeziei; simpla contemplatie a misterelor de pe bolta devine suficienta daca nu pentru o intelegere intelectuala, cu siguranta pentru o intuitie empatica: „i love to wathch them in the deep blue vault, / and to compare them with my myrrha’s eyes; / i love to see theor rays redoubled in / the tremulous silver of euphrates’ wave, / as the light breeze of midnight crispis the broad / and rolling water, sighing through the sedges / Which fringe his banks: but whether they may be / gods, as some say, or the abode of gods, / as others hold, or simply lamps of night, / Worlds, or the lights of worlds, i know nor care not”. regele demonstreaza curaj gnoseologic atunci când face, in prezenta supusilor, apologia nestiintei sale, implicând insa, intr-o maniera ce aminteste de socrate, ca simpla constientizare a acestui fapt duce la o viata implinita. viata de apoi, crede personajul sardanapalus, laolalta cu renegatul sau creator, Byron, este o simpla iluzie, generata de umanul horror vacui: „there’s something sweet in my uncertainty / i would not change for your chaldean lore; / Besides, i know of these all clay can know / of aught above it, or below it – nothing. / i see their brilliancy and feel their beauty – / When they shine on my grave i shall know neither”. daca este sa-i acordam credit lui Byron, paradisul terestru pare a fi localizat in inima egiptului, intr-un tinut fertil si linistit, hranit de undele vitale ale Nilului.2 in poemul eroic the Bride of abydos3, expozitiunea ne confrunta cu imaginea genuina a unei regiuni binecuvântate de zei. versurile curg asemenea unui fluviu lin, modulate de cadenta intrebarilor ce par, initial, retorice: „know ye the land where the cypress and myrtle / are emblems of deeds that are done in their clime? / Where the rage of the vulture, the love of the turtle, / Now melt into sorrow, now madden to crime!”. detaliile vegetale, punctate de referinte aviare, conduc la climaxul spiralei interogative: „know ye the land of the cedar and vine, / Where the flowers ever blossom, the beams ever shine; / Where the light wings of zephyr, oppress’d with perfume, / Wax faint o’er the gardens of gúl in her bloom; / Where the citron and olive are fairest of fruit, / and the voice of the nightingale never is mute: / Where the tints of the earth, and the hues of the sky, / in colour though varied, in beauty may vie, / and the purple of ocean is deepest in dye; / Where the virgins are soft as the roses they twine, / and all, save the spirit of man, is divine?”. raspunsul este concis, dar expresiv, implicând o prozopopee rafinata: „’tis the clime of the east, ’tis the land of the sun – / can he smile on such deeds as his children have done? / oh! wild as the accents of the lovers’ farewell / are the hearts which they bear, and the tales which they tell”. aproape nimeni n-ar putea suspecta tragedia expusa in continuare (voi reveni cu detalii in sectiunea a iii-a a studiului meu). rarefiate meditatii pe tema exilului si a pierderii tinutului natal sunt diseminate cu generozitate in byronienele Hebrew melodies. un exemplu elocvent este constituit de poemul the Wild gazelle, care se deschide cu imaginea unei salbaticiuni zvelte, adapostite de geografia benigna: „the wild gazelle on judah’s hills / exulting yet may bound, / and drink from all the living rills / that gush on holy ground: / its airy step and glorious eye / may glance in tameless transport by”. animalul incarneaza spiritul liber; prin contrast, ne este furnizata o metafora a inradacinarii – cea a palmierului ce refuza transplantarea intr-un sol strain: „more blest each palm that shades those plains / than israel’s scatter’d race; / for, taking root, it there remains / in solitary grace: / it cannot quit its place of birth, / it will not live in other earth”. pamântul sacru al israelului devine obiectul unui exaltat encomion in poemul on Jordan’s Banks. locurile ce poarta amintirea clara a umbrei lui dumnezeu sunt acum sub stapânire straina: „on jordan’s banks the arab’s camels stray, / on sion’s hill the false one’s votaries pray, / the Baal-adorer bows on sinai‘s steep – / yet there – even there – oh god! thy thunders sleep”. repetitia obsesiva a adverbului de loc (cu nuanta deictica) imprima tensiune emotionala discursului liric: „there – where thy finger scorch’d the tablet stone! / there – where thy shadow to thy people shone! / thy glory shrouded in its garb of fire: – / thyself – none living see and not expire!”. invocatia din final se vrea un gest compensatoriu, estompat intr-o oarecare masura de doza consistenta de retorism ce acompaniaza interogatiile patetice: „oh! in the lightning – let thy glance appear; / sweep from his shiver’d hand the oppressor’s spear! / how long by tyrants shall thy land be trod? / how long thy temple worshipless, oh god?”. râurile Babilonului sunt convertite prompt in vehicule metaforice ale suferintei provocate de pierderea caminului in poemul We sate down and Wept by the rivers of Babel (redat, uneori, sub titlul conventional- biblic By the rivers of Babylon We sat down and Wept). lamento-ul se consuma in tacere demna si in meditatie retrospectiva: „We sate down and wept by the waters / of Babel, and thought of the day / When our foe, in the hue of his slaughters, / made salem‘s high places his prey; / and ye, oh her desolate daughters! / Were scattered all weeping away.” catrenele conventionale, cu rima de tip aaBB, din poemul anterior sunt convertite in sextine, cu rima de tip aBaBaB, fapt care sudeaza tropii in unitati lirice mult mai compacte. urechile inamicilor nu trebuie sa aiba niciodata satisfactia de a auzi melopeea respirata de harpa celui instrainat cu forta: „While sadly we gazed on the river / Which roll’d on in freedom below, / they demanded the song; but, oh never / that triumph the stranger shall know! / may this right hand be withered for ever, / ere it string our high harp for the foe!”. tema este reluata cu subtilitate dintr-un alt unghi, de data aceasta non-toponimic, in poemul the valley of Waters. practic, intregul inventar imagistic din poemul discutat anterior se regaseste in versuri de mare forta, iar forma aleasa (rima de tip aaaa) reda ideea de threnos identitar, consumat in tragismul unui spatiu esentialmente strain: „in the valley of waters we wept o’er the day / When the host of the stranger made salem his prey, / and our heads on our bosoms all droopingly lay, / and our hearts were so full of the land far away. / the song they demanded in vain – it lay still / in our souls as the wind that hath died on the hill; / they call’d for the harp— but our blood they shall spill / ere our right hand shall teach them one tone of our skill”. soarta tragica a poporului constrâns la diaspora ca urmare a pierderii patriei este deplânsa in poemul oh! Weep for those, parte din Hebrew melodies: „oh! Weep for those that wept by Babel’s stream, / Whose shrines are desolate, whose land a dream, / Weep for the harp of judah’s broken shell – / mourn – where their god hath dwelt – the godless dwell!”. analogiile cu animalele care se bucura, simplu, de confortul unui camin augmenteaza sentimentul regretului: „tribes of the wandering foot and weary breast, / how shall ye flee away and be at rest! / the wild-dove hath her nest – the fox his cave – / mankind their country – israel but the grave!”. totusi, pamântul lui israel nu este doar o patrie pierduta, ci si locul geometric al realizarii iubirii ideale. una dintre capodoperele ciclului Hebrew melodies este reprezentata, in opinia mea, de poezia it is the Hour, care are in centru nu numai o poetica insolita a exoticului erotizant, ci si o lectura fidela a unui spatiu sacralizat de simbioza dintre prospetimea vegetatiei si amprenta sacrului: „it is the hour when from the boughs / the nightingale’s high note is heard – / it is the hour – when lovers’ vows / seem sweet in every whisper’d word – / and gentle winds and waters near / make music to the lonely ear. / each flower the dews have lightly wet, / and in the sky the stars are met”. sfirsitul zilei anunta insa inceputul noptii, interval dedicat ritualului amorului si consumat in cadrul eteric al naturii. descoperim aici intregul inventar al imaginarului romantic: „and on the wave is deeper blue, / and on the leaf a browner hue – / and in the heaven, that clear obscure / so softly dark – and darkly pure, / that follows the decline of day / as twilight melts beneath the moon away”. in oglinda, locul odihnei vesnice al persoanei cu adevarat fericite, ajunse la capatul unei vieti implinite, este un spatiu strajuit de verdeata (comparatia din registrul nestematelor ii potenteaza forta evocativa), insa vidat de orice sugestii de regret sau de doliu. aceasta este tema meditatiei lirice Bright Be the place of thy soul, precum transpare din versuri pacifice: „light be the turf of thy tomb! / may its verdure like emeralds be! / there should not be the shadow of gloom, / in ought that reminds us of thee. / young flow’rs and an evergreen tree, / may grow o’er the spot of thy rest. / But nor cypress nor yew let us see, / for why should we mourn for the blest?”. acestea fiind spuse, pot incheia, in acest punct, investigarea spatiului oriental, asa cum este el configurat in poezia romantica engleza. in numerele viitoare, va propun examinarea coordonatei exotice a antropicului oriental, precum transpare aceasta din acelasi univers liric.
Autor(i):  Catalin Ghita

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